Berlin Tegel: Farewell to the airport that would not die

(CNN) – Pomwe kutsegulidwa kwapafupi kwa eyapoti yakuchedwa kwa Berlin ku Brandenburg kudzapangitsa ambiri mumzindawu kupuma pang’ono, kumatanthauzanso kutha kwachisoni kwa nyengo.

Pomwe Brandenburg ikugwira ntchito, eyapoti ya Berlin ku Tegel – malo okondedwa kwambiri azaka zapitazi – pamapeto pake adzatsekedwa mpaka kalekale.

Zowona, Tegel amayenera kuchotsedwa ntchito zaka zapitazo. Inali yodzaza, yotopa komanso yachikale. Koma kuchedwa kwazaka khumi ku Brandenburg kunapangitsa kuti ikhalebe yokhazikika, ndipo pazolakwitsa zake zonse, imakondedwa ndi ambiri.

Ngakhale zoyesayesa kutseka bwalo la eyapoti koyambirira kwa chaka chino chifukwa cha mliri wa coronavirus zidalephera. Tegel adatha kuzemba imfa komaliza.

Ngakhale inali yocheperako, idakhala eyapoti yachinayi yoyendetsa ndege kwambiri ku Germany ndikuimira Berlin ngati nyumba zina zochepa.

Ma eyapoti aku Berlin samangokhala njira zonyamulira, osati malo okhala opanda kanthu pakati pamunda. Nyumbazi zikuwonetseratu nkhani yazovuta zamzindawu mzaka za zana la 20 ndi 21.

Tempelhof yotchuka kwambiri, idatsegulidwa mu 1927, ndikulemba malo ake munthawi ya ndege mu Berlin yapa 1948-49 pomwe mzindawu udazunguliridwa ndi Soviet Union.

Tsopano yatsekedwa, yasandulika kukhala paki ndi malo omwe amafunidwa makanema pankhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse.

Eyapoti ina yayikulu yamzindawu, Schönefeld, idatsegulidwa mu 1946 ngati bwalo lalikulu la ndege ku East Germany, ndipo idasungabe zina zaku Soviet Union kupitirira pomwe dzikolo lidagwirizananso.

Mwa onsewo, ndi Tegel yemwe amakhala ndi malo apadera mumtima mwa anthu ambiri aku Berliners.

Malamulo a Stalin

Ndege ya Tegel ikukonzekera kutseka kwathunthu pa Novembala 8, 2020.

JOHN MACDOUGALL / AFP kudzera pa Getty Zithunzi

Monga zinthu zina zambiri mumzinda, Tegel Airport ndi njira yolekerera yomwe mwanjira inayake idakhala yokhazikika.

Pambuyo pa nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse, West Berlin akadali m’manja mwa magulu ankhondo, panali malingaliro osintha malowa kukhala magawo, koma mtsogoleri wa Soviet Joseph Stalin anali ndi malingaliro osiyana.

Pomwe blockade yomwe adalamula idayamba mu June 1948, zidapezeka mwachangu kuti pakufunika malo owonjezerapo ndege kuti abweretse katundu, kotero olamulira aku France omwe amayang’anira chigawo cha Tegel adalamula kuti pakhazikitsidwe mseu wotalika mita 2,500 – motalika kwambiri ku Europe panthawiyo.

Ndege yoyamba, USAF Douglas C-54, idafika mu Novembala 1948.

Kutsekedwa kutatha miyezi isanu ndi umodzi pambuyo pake, Tegel adakhala likulu la Berlin la French Air Force.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1950, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa magalimoto obwera ku West Berlin mu ndege zokulirapo, mayendedwe ku Tempelhof anali ofupika kwambiri, kotero mzaka makumi awiri zotsatira Tegel idakhala eyapoti yayikulu.

Udindo wapaderadera mzindawu panthawi ya Cold War umatanthauza kuti ma Allies okha ndi omwe amatha kuyendetsa ndege zankhondo komanso zankhondo kuchokera ku Tegel. Anthu onse okwera ndege amayenera kugwiritsa ntchito nyumba yaying’ono yoyambirira ya eyapotiyo.

Ngakhale panali zopanikiza komanso zoletsa izi, kwa ena bwalo la ndege lidalidi khomo lolowera kuufulu.

Drahomira Bukowiecki adathawa Czechoslovakia yachikomyunizimu mu 1968 kupita ku West Berlin ndipo adaweruzidwa kuti agwire ntchito yakalavula gaga kwa zaka 10 osakhalapo.

Kwa iye, eyapoti inali njira yokhayo yopulumukira mumzinda wozunguliridwa ndi chikominisi.

“Ndikadangodutsa ku Tegel, chifukwa ndikadamangidwa ndikayesa kuwoloka GDR kudzera pamtunda,” Bukowiecki akuuza CNN Travel. “Chifukwa chake Tegel adakhala njira yanga yolowera padziko lapansi, chifukwa ndidakwera ndege koyamba m’moyo wanga kuchokera pano.”

Kukongola kwa hexagonal

Tegel adawonedwa ngati

Tegel adawonedwa ngati “khomo lolowera kuufulu” kwa anthu ena omwe amathawa kuponderezedwa ndi Soviet.

Maja Hitij / Getty Zithunzi

Ndegeyo idapitilizabe kukopa anthu aku Berliners, makamaka atatsegulidwa nyumba yomaliza yatsopano, yachiwawa komanso yooneka ngati hexagonally mu 1974.

Kapangidwe kake kofupikitsako kinafupikitsa mtunda woyenda mpaka wautali ngati 30 mita kuchokera ndege mpaka potuluka.

“Kwa ine ndi ena ambiri ku West Berliners, Tegel analidi malo osiyana,” akuwonjezera Bukowiecki. “Ikuyimira dziko lowoneka bwino loyenda pandege ndi masitolo ake omwe amagulitsa zinthu zabwino komanso njira yonse yonyamuka yomwe inali yosiyana kwambiri mzaka za 1970.

“Ndipo ngakhale titalumikizananso, pomwe maulendo apandege amapezeka ponseponse, malingaliro amenewo sanasinthe. Schönefeld alidi kutali kwambiri ndi mzindawu. Chifukwa chake kwa ine ndi m’badwo wanga Tegel ndiye bwalo la ndege lenileni la Berlin, gawo lathu limodzi malo omwe adatipangitsa kuti tizitha kupita ku ufulu! “

M’zaka zingapo zotsatira zinthu zidamuyendera bwino Tegel.

Pa Seputembara 1, 1975, Pan Am ndi British Airways adasunthira ntchito yawo yonse ku Berlin usiku wonse.

Mtolankhani wopuma pantchito a Jutta Hertlein akukumbukira chisangalalo cha oyandikana nawo pomwe ofesi yatsopanoyo idayamba kugwira ntchito.

“M’mawa woyandikira nyumba adabwera kwa ine ndikundifunsa ngati ndakhala ndikumva ndege zonse zikuuluka pansi panyumba usiku wonse – zikuwasuntha kuchokera ku Tempelhof kupita ku Tegel,” akutero. “Koma ndinali nditabatizidwa kwambiri pantchito yanga kotero kuti sindinamve kalikonse.”

Hertlein amakumbukiranso kuti Tegel adakhala ndi malo andale ku Berlin ndi Germany, zabwino kapena zoyipa.

“Ndidagwiritsa ntchito pafupipafupi popita kukagwira ntchito, koma nthawi yomweyo m’ma 80s eyapoti idagwiritsidwa kale ntchito pochotsa anthu ofuna chitetezo.

“Panali chiwonetsero chachikulu chomwe chidakonzedwa pamwambo umodzi wotere, ndipo ndidapita kukakumana ndi otsutsawo ku Tegel m’mawa, koma m’mene ndimavala zovala zanga zabizinesi apolisi omwe adachita ziwonetserozi adayesera kunditsogolera ku eyapoti momwe ndimachitira sindikuwoneka ngati wotsutsa konse – koma ndimafuna kuwonetsa kuti siangokhala ma punks achichepere komanso otsalira omwe akutsutsa kuthamangitsidwa kumeneku. “

Chisokonezo ndi chisokonezo

Tegel amayenera kutseka molawirira chifukwa cha mliriwu, komabe adabweranso kuti adzawonjezere zina.

Tegel amayenera kutseka molawirira chifukwa cha mliriwu, komabe adabweranso kuti adzawonjezere zina.

JOHN MACDOUGALL / AFP kudzera pa Getty Zithunzi

Ndikuphatikizidwanso ku Germany ku 1990 ndipo boma likuchoka ku Bonn kupita ku Berlin, zoletsa zonse zamagalimoto amu Berlin zidachotsedwa ndipo Tegel adakhala eyapoti yaboma ku Germany.

Udindowu watanthauza kuti awona Purezidenti wa US Air Force One akufika kuno nthawi zambiri kuposa eyapoti iliyonse ku Germany.

Kuphatikizidwanso kunatanthauzanso kuti kuchuluka kwa okwera ndege komanso ndege zikuchulukirachulukira popeza kuyenda kwamlengalenga kunayamba kufalikira.

Tegel idapangidwa kuti izisamalira okwera 2.5 miliyoni pachaka, koma anthu 24 miliyoni adachoka pano ku 2019.

Pomwe gawo lachitatu lachigawo linawonjezeredwa mu 2007, Tegel adayamba kupanikizika, pomwe magwiridwe antchito ndi zida zake zidatha.

Panalibe kulumikizana kwapaulendo wamba. Oyenda ogwiritsa ntchito masitima apamtunda a U-Bahn ku Berlin amayenera kukwera basi ku Kurt-Schumacher-Platz. Ngakhale Schönefeld anali ndi kulumikizana kwabwinoko ndi njanji.

“Kapangidwe kapangidwe kapadera ka Tegel kamakupangitsani kuti muzimva ngati kuti nthawi yayamba mu ma 1970,” akutero oyenda pafupipafupi a Michael Stoffl, ochokera ku Berlin. “Ndegeyo ndi yaying’ono, makamaka poyerekeza ndi mitu ikuluikulu padziko lonse lapansi.

“Bwalo la eyapoti mwina limawoneka ngati lamakono komanso loyenera litatsegulidwa koma, makamaka mzaka 10 zapitazi, okwera ndege adakumana ndi zovuta zake, monga momwe nthawi zambiri amadzimva kuti ndiopanikizika komanso ali ndi chipwirikiti – komanso kusowa kwa malo.

“Mumayenera kuwonetsetsa kuti simukuyima pamzere olakwika pamakina owerengera alendo chifukwa nthawi zambiri zimasokoneza komwe aliyense amapita.

“Ambiri a Tegel nthawi zonse amadandaula za kuyandikira kwawo pakatikati pa mzindawu, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti munthu asamukire mtawuni mwachangu – pokhapokha mutagwiritsa ntchito zoyendera pagulu. Panokha, sindidzamusowa Tegel, kupatula kuti mwina ndikuwopa.”

“Ndimakondana kwambiri ndi zaka zake za m’ma 70s. ”

Tilman Hierath, woyang’anira mnzake ku Circus Hotel ku Berlin

Koma kapangidwe kosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito magalimoto a Tegel kanapangitsa anthu ambiri kukonda eyapoti, makamaka pantchito yochereza alendo ku Berlin.

Tilman Hierath ndi mnzake wa Circus Hotel ku Rosenthaler Platz komanso woyendetsa ndege wokonda kuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi ndipo amakonda kugwiritsa ntchito eyapoti.

“Tegel ndiye ndege yabwino kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi,” akutero. “Ndipo sindinena izi chifukwa ndimakondana kwambiri ndi zoyipa za m’ma 70s.

“Kapangidwe kameneka sikangakhale kogwira ntchito, koma ndi maloto a wapaulendo ofikira kwakanthawi kochepa komanso mtunda wawufupi. Oyendetsa ma cab atanyanyala ntchito zaka zingapo m’mbuyomu, ndidabwereka vani ndikuyendetsa alendo athu kuchokera ku hoteloyo kupita ku eyapoti. .

“Ku Tegel sizitanthauza kulowa pakhomo la matauni awiri kutali. M’malo mwake, tidatha kusiya alendo athu molunjika pachipata chawo. Ndi eyapoti yayikulu yokha yomwe ndikudziwa komwe mungaone cholembera cholembapo ndege yochokera pakauntala yolozera. “

Chithumwa chonyansa

Boeing 707 yakale yomwe idaperekedwa ngati mphatso kwa Lufthansa ili kumapeto kwa msewu.

Boeing 707 yakale yomwe idaperekedwa ngati mphatso kwa Lufthansa ili kumapeto kwa msewu.

aslu / ullstein chithunzi / Getty Images

Hierath amakumbukira chochitika china chokhudza mlendo wokonda nthawi.

“Amayenera kukhala pamsonkhano wofunikira kwambiri ku hotelo yathu ndipo amafunikanso kukwera ndege masanawa. Chifukwa chake desiki yathu yakutsogolo idayitanitsa Tegel ndipo adatsegula chitseko cha alendo athu.

“Ndikukhudza kumeneku komwe kunapangitsa kusiyana konse. Tegel sanapangidwe kuti awopseze ndikusangalatsa, adapangidwa kuti azikhala pagulu lapaulendo.”

Tegel nthawi zonse imawoneka ngati khomo lolowera ku Berlin.

Si eyapoti yokonzedwa bwino yomwe ili ndi mipando ya kutikita minofu komanso zowonera mwanzeru. M’malo mwake, monga mzinda womwe umatumikirako, uli ndi chithumwa chodetsa komanso mtima wabwino.

Makhalidwe ake amawonetsedwa m’malo obisika a eyapoti osagwirizana ndi zochitika zandege.

Kumapeto kwa mseuwo kuli Boeing 707 yakale, yoyendetsedwa ndi El Al, yomwe nthawi ina inali zigawenga za ku Palestina poyesa kulanda mu 1970.

Inakongoletsedwa pamakalata a Lufthansa ndipo idaperekedwa kwa ndege ndi Boeing ngati mphatso mu 1986. Popeza palibe oyendetsa ndege aku Germany kapena onyamula omwe adaloledwa kuwuluka kupita ku Tegel panthawiyo, ndegeyo idakutidwa ndi zomata zoyera ndikuperekedwa ndi gulu la ku America ku usiku, kuwululidwa mu mitundu ya Lufthansa tsiku lotsatira.

Ndegeyi idaperekedwa ndi Lufthansa kupita ku West Berlin mu 1987 ngati gawo la zikondwerero zakubadwa kwa mzindawu zaka 750. Potsirizira pake idasunthidwa kupita pakona yakutali ya bwalo la ndege, nthawi zina imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita maphunziro opulumukira.

Kumapeto ena a Tegel ndi Allierte yaying’ono koma yovuta kwambiri ku Berlin Museum, gulu lodziyimira lokha lomwe limagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi odzipereka ndikupereka mbiri ya magulu ankhondo a Allies ku Berlin.

Bowie ndi Reagan

Khomo lolowera ku Berlin kwa Purezidenti wa US ndi ma popstars, Tegel adakhazikitsa malo ake m'mbiri yamzindawu.

Khomo lolowera ku Berlin kwa Purezidenti wa US ndi ma popstars, Tegel adakhazikitsa malo ake m’mbiri yamzindawu.

Maja Hitij / Getty Zithunzi

Ndegeyo iyenera kulembedwa mu Novembala 8 pomwe ndege yomaliza yochoka ku Tegel idzakhala – moyenera – ntchito ya Air France ku Paris.

Pambuyo pake, tsogolo silikudziwika.

Okonza nyumba ndi akatswiri okonza mapulani ali okonzeka kuyambiranso eyapoti: Pali malingaliro okonza malowa kukhala malo otchedwa “Urban Tech Republic,” malo abizinesi apamwamba kwambiri omwe angapereke ntchito 18,000.

Mapeto a Tegel a A ndi B adzagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi University of Applied Sciences Berlin kukhazikitsa paki yatsopano yaukadaulo kwa ophunzira mpaka 2,500. Dera lotsalira lipezeka kuti ligwiritsidwe ntchito mafakitale, dera lalikulu kwambiri lamkati mkati mwa mzinda ku Berlin wamasiku ano.

Mulimonse momwe zingakhalire, bwalo la eyapoti mu nkhani ya Berlin lidzakhazikitsa malo ake ngati “eyapoti” yamzindawu, makamaka, monga wolemba waku Britain komanso katswiri waku Berlin a Paul Sullivan anena, chifukwa chazomwe amachita pachikhalidwe chaposachedwa cha pop.

“Ndikuganiza kuti mzaka makumi angapo za eyapoti kukula kwake komanso kukongoletsa kwake komanso kuti otchuka ambiri ngati David Bowie ndi Ronald Reagan adagwiritsa ntchito kulowa ku West Berlin zidapangitsadi chikondi ku Berliners,” akutero.

“Ngakhale khola lokwera mtengo la Currywurst kunja kwa bwaloli, lopangidwa kuti liziwoneka ngati ngolo ya S-Bahn, kwa ine likuyimira kukongola kokongola kwa eyapoti.”

Ngakhale oyandikana nawo adzamasulidwa, chinthu chimodzi chomwe ndimamusowa kwambiri pa Tegel ndikoyenda kwachindunji, mokweza komanso kununkhira.

Panali china chosangalatsa kwenikweni chodikirira pamalo okwerera mabasi ku Kurt-Schumacher-Platz pafupi ndi malo oyimilira a kebab ndi malo odyera achi China ndikuwona ndege zikubangula mita 50 pamwamba pake pomaliza kufika ku eyapoti.

Tegel anali m’modzi mwa omaliza omwalira: eyapoti yamzinda wakale, womenyedwa komanso wosagonjetsedwa.

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